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交易心理

交易心理学是指交易决策过程中的心理和情感因素。它代表了交易者的个性和行为中对交易结果产生影响的部分。

Notably, there are many ways in which these aspects of one’s character are exhibited, be it through fear, greed, arrogance and even hope. But of the four emotions, fear and greed are considered to have a primary influence on trading psychology, particularly in regard to risk taking and discipline.

Being too greedy may lead to decisions that are considered overly risky. Being too scared can result in missed opportunities or hindered trading with little capital gain. Developing self-awareness is likely to help a trader identify recurring negative behavioural patterns and the way they cloud sound judgement.

This enables the trader to address the behaviours to ensure objectivity and rational trading decisions.

行为金融:偏见的影响。

The study of trading psychology looks at the reasons behind traders making potentially foolish decisions in the market or pertinent to other financial matters. Behavioural finance in particular melds psychology and finance to investigate the impact of human behaviour on financial choices and trading outcomes.

In other words, it identifies psychological influences and biases that drive trader and financial practitioner behaviour and explores how this behaviour can affect market outcomes. Behavioural finance is also examined to gain a better understanding of different outcomes across a range of sectors and industries.

Additionally, behavioural finance proposes that financial participants are not entirely rational or perfectly self-controlled. Instead, they are influenced by psychological factors, and possess relatively normal, self-controlling tendencies. Behavioural finance also purports that decision making in the context of finance is driven by one’s mental and physical wellbeing. 

In other words, one’s mental state fluctuates based on the level of their overall health. Some of the most common behavioural biases include overconfidence, herd behaviour, mental accounting, emotional gap, anchoring, self-attribution, and loss aversion.

情绪交易

Another popular term falling within the scope of trading psychology is emotional trading (or emotional investing). Similar to behavioural finance, emotional trading refers to behavioural impulses triggered by market volatilities, resulting in emotional buying or selling of assets.


情绪交易可以受到一系列情绪的影响,比如恐慌、贪婪、兴奋、恐惧,甚至是过度自信。


Some common examples of emotional trading decisions include overtrading, panic selling, confirmation bias, and others. Getting a handle on emotional trading requires emotional intelligence to maintain discipline and manage psychological stressors.


Engaging in ongoing learning and investing in personal development will help a trader acquire vital skills like self-regulation, empathy, and confidence.

交易本能

An additional key aspect of trading psychology is the concept of trading instincts, i.e., the intuitive or gut feelings that traders may experience when making decisions in financial markets. 

 

Trusting one’s instincts however comes with a robust self-awareness and having the ability to separate a legitimate, rational decision from one driven by emotional impulse. It’s realising that one’s objectivity may be skewed or clouded by bias and taking the steps to rectify the problem.

 

影响理性决策的三种最常见的心理现象包括:感觉驱动偏差(基于可能有偏差的信息形成看法)、避免含糊(对未知的恐惧)和预测的确切性(当预测的感觉成为关注的重点,而不是将实现预期的目标放在首位)。

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